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This article examines the intersection of two structural developments: the growth of surveillance and the rise of “big data.” Drawing on observations and interviews conducted within the Los Angeles Police Department, I offer an empirical account of how the adoption of big data analytics does—and does not—transform police surveillance practices. 2020 March/April Topic Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. (2016), Dirty Data, Bad Predictions (2019) Law enforcement agencies are increasingly using predictive policing systems to forecast criminal activity and allocate police resources. The problem is that for a lot of civilians predictive policing conjures flashbacks to the 2002 film Minority Report, a future where people are arrested and sentenced before they ever commit a crime. 5. endstream endobj 619 0 obj <>/Metadata 28 0 R/Outlines 32 0 R/Pages 616 0 R/StructTreeRoot 47 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences 635 0 R>> endobj 620 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 616 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 621 0 obj <>stream Copy and paste Big Sky Debate’s excellent research into your own briefs, or, print out the PDF and file the old-fashioned way! Check the doc for a list of spec. Senior Open Mixed Extemp. %%EOF The algorithm is a culmination of anthropological and criminological behavior research. D�Y� �0� %PDF-1.7 %���� The predictive policing model is deceptive and problematic because it presumes that data inputs and algorithms are neutral, and therefore that the information the computer spits out will present police officers with objective, discrimination-free leads on where to send officers or deploy other resources. Resolved: The United States ought to grant legal personhood to natural ecosystems. Check the doc for a list of spec. Sunday, the New York Times published a well-meaning op-ed about the fears of racial bias in artificial intelligence and predictive policing systems. The September 11 attacks in 2001 led to a radical modernization in American policing that included the advent of so-called Big Data — analysis of large datasets to discover hidden patterns. Resolved: The United States ought to grant legal personhood to natural ecosystems. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Senior Open Lincoln-Douglas Debate. Briefly Posted on February 1, 2020 February 1, 2020 by Lawrence Zhou Champion Brief- Here LD Resources 2020 March Topic, Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. h�Ėmk�8ǿ�^�r=?�@�4��v������4 ��h���Gv�>�.���,�F��oFv�2��vLY�lX�! Predictive policing solves that because officers are already on standby and have experience in their area of assignment because they are deployed there for longer periods of time. The Los Angeles Police Department embraced predictive policing in 2015, but it has taken until now for the department’s assortment of once-shadowy … Forgot password? Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. The MSHSAA promotes the value of participation, sportsmanship, team play, and personal excellence to develop citizens who make positive contributions to their community and support the democratic principles of our state and nation. More broadly, this guide is intended to put predictive policing in the context of other modern, proactive policing measures. Some of this concern can be resolved by carefully explaining what predictive policing is and what it is not. Missouri State High School Sports Activities. Remember that some of the advantages of data analytics and Big Data application are also some of the advantages of predictive policing. Though debate is competitive, it must also be accessible. A Quick Note Before We Get Started: Before we dive into the research and argumentation, it is important to take a second to acknowledge that policing can be a politically charged topic. Finally, I highlight the social consequences of big data surveillance for law and social inequality. AFF Ideas: The most common aff on this topic will probably be one that focuses on racial inequality. A Wisconsin man challenged a 7-year jail sentence he got for driving a car without the owner’s consent and eluding police because a risk-assessment tool called COMPAS determined he was a high risk for committing future crimes. $24.99. Resolved: Japan ought to amend Article 9 of its constitution to allow for offensive military capabilities. Each round will include a mixture of international and domestic themes. The 2021 January Public Forum debate is, Resolved: The NSA should end its surveillance of U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents. Product Details. What’s not to get excited about?Unfortunately, many predictions made by policing software don’t come true. h�b```��,l� ��ea�8 ��s`�u�fœ�4RDnp��600�8L�T��]� �++�+؀$C��d�2�j>(f`� :C���MI��&�:�A{,X�0pHJe�e` Evidence that curtailing proactive policing can reduce major crime, Nature Human Behaviour (2017).DOI: 10.1038/s41562-017-0211-5. I argue that the adoption of big data analytics facilitates amplifications of prior surveillance practices and fundamental transformations in surveillance activities. Some of this concern can be resolved by carefully explaining what predictive policing is and what it is not. The use of predictive policing in law enforcement is part of a longer historical shift from reactive policing to proactive policing. Based on these findings, I develop a theoretical model of big data surveillance that can be applied to institutional domains beyond the criminal justice system. Predictive policing is “the application of analytical techniques—particularly quantitative techniques—to identify likely targets for police intervention and prevent crime or solve past crimes by making statistical predictions” ( RAND, 2013 ). 2020 March/April Topic Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust Login to Purchase. 1113 Carolina, Washington, Tennessee, Florida, Pennsylvania, and New York, among others, have purchased new predictive policing software to combat property crimes such as burglaries, car thefts, and thefts from automobiles. The March/April Lincoln-Douglas Brief from Champion Briefs is 393 pages long and includes in-depth Topic Analyses by Sheryl Kaczmarek, Amanda Ciocca, Charles Karcher, and Shankar Krishnan, 275+ cards, General Information about the topic, Framework suggestions, and more! These differences in opinion can make it difficult to decide on how or even if law enforcement should be using predictive analytics. Bibliography and files Resolved: The United States ought to legalize adult sex work. Human rights groups have claimed predictive policing unfairly targets minorities by reinforcing existing attitudes. We approached this task in three ways: 1. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. This article is more than 1 year old. More broadly, this guide is intended to put predictive policing in the context of other modern, proactive policing measures. The worry is that predictive policing could amplify biases and lead to unequal outcomes for individuals and communities. Bibliography & files Resolved: Japan ought to amend Article 9 of its constitution to allow for offensive military capabilities. Briefly Posted on … Wikipedia. The September 11 attacks in 2001 led to a radical modernization in American policing that included the advent of so-called Big Data — analysis of large datasets to discover hidden patterns. These techniques can help departments address crime problems more effectively and efficiently. POLICING PREDICTIVE POLICING. Fifth, previously separate data systems are merged, facilitating the spread of surveillance into a wide range of institutions. endstream endobj startxref Last month, for example, researchers in Wales at the Social Data Science Lab at Cardiff University received an $800,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Justice to come up with a predictive policing model for Los Angeles — specifically, for hate crimes. (Predictive policing software also takes into account the phases of the moon and the schedules of sports games.) [1] Predictive policing methods fall into four general categories: methods for predicting crimes, methods for predicting offenders, methods for predicting perpetrators’ identities, and methods for predicting victims of crime.[2]. Predictive policing is “the application of analytical techniques—particularly quantitative techniques—to identify likely targets for police intervention and prevent crime or solve past crimes by making statistical predictions” ( RAND, 2013 ). Advocacy Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. First, discretionary assessments of risk are supplemented and quantified using risk scores. CP and PICs affirm because they do not disprove my general thesis i.e. Register. Software is more accurate at predicting policing than crime (2018), Using Predictive policing to reduce crime (2018), Copyright © DebateUS 2019 | Developed and Maintained by Suddha.Marketing, Predictive Policing: The Role of Crime in Forecasting Law Enforcement Operations. Predictive policing is a phrase that raises concerns for many. The resolution was Resolved: Predictive Policing is Unjust. Resolved: Japan ought to amend Article 9 of its constitution to allow for offensive military capabilities. The “definition of predictive policing” has been in use for years, but the growth of software and reliance upon it has given us insight into both the benefits and challenges of predictive policing. As described by Sarah Brayne (2017 , p. 989), since the 1980s, the police work has moved from chasing suspects of crime into proactive policing of particular hot spots where crimes may occur. This article is more than 1 year old. CP and PICs affirm because they do not disprove my general thesis i.e. The current work demonstrates that this problem is less readily resolved than previously suspected. 2020 March Topic, Resolved: The United States should increase its use of nuclear energy for commercial energy production. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Public Forum Topic Resolved: The United States should increase its use of nuclear energy for commercial energy production. Another disadvantage of predictive policing is that it reduces the accountability of law enforcers. Missouri State High School Sports Activities. Evidence that curtailing proactive policing can reduce major crime, Nature Human Behaviour (2017).DOI: 10.1038/s41562-017-0211-5. Today more than ever, law enforcement work is also proactive. 634 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<6CAC2F4B41B6044399DC4C3D9B0D9443><2B7522439D361141893EC3DACC2A2E5E>]/Index[618 36]/Info 617 0 R/Length 88/Prev 170914/Root 619 0 R/Size 654/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Resolved: The United States should remove nearly all of its military presence in the Arab States of the Persian Gulf. Predictive policing refers to the usage of mathematical, predictive analytics, and other analytical techniques in law enforcement to identify potential criminal activity. In particular, we examine the link between unlawful and biased police practices and the data available to train or implement these systems. 5. As explained in the study by L. B. Moses and J. Chan, because most of the processes in data analytics are automated, it could undermine the ability of individuals or agencies to give an account of their decisions in significant ways. L. Edwards and L. Urquhart explored the privacy issues raised i… More information: Christopher M. Sullivan et al. Data from past crimes, including crime types and locations, are fed into a “Predictive policing” has an enticing ring to it. Advocacy Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Law enforcement has evolved a lot since then, of course. BACKGROUND: Predictive Policing: The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations, Rand Corporation [Report: Executive Summary], 2013 Don't have an account? All Products April 2020 briefs debate debate briefs LD Lincoln-Douglas Debate March 2020 March/April 2020 National Speech and Debate Association NSDA Resolved: The United States ought to legalize adult sex work. ����� The author, Bärí A. Williams, should be commended for engaging the debate about building “intelligent” computer systems to predict crime, and for framing these developments in racial justice terms. The author, Bärí A. Williams, should be commended for engaging the debate about building “intelligent” computer systems to predict crime, and for framing these developments in racial justice terms. Bibliography & files Resolved: Japan ought to amend Article 9 of its constitution to allow for offensive military capabilities. Second, data are used for predictive, rather than reactive or explanatory, purposes. The predictive policing model helped to alert officers to targeted locations in real time, a significant improvement over traditional tactics. A list of briefs for this book appears below. Mar/Apr 2020: "Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust." Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Briefly Posted on … birds fly is not denied by the one instance of penguins. Resolved: The United States ought to legalize adult sex work. Is predictive policing the future of law enforcement? March/April Lincoln-Douglas Brief. For example, some people argue that while predictive policing is unjust when it attempts to identify potential perpetrators of crimes, it is a good method when used only to identify potential victims of crimes since that would allow police officers to help provide these victims with protection and support. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. The 2020 March/April Lincoln-Douglas debate topic is, Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. A list of briefs for this book appears below. More information: Christopher M. Sullivan et al. Some of these data might be too personal, or their handlers might lack the capabilities and professionalism to keep them secured. In our research, we analyze thirteen jurisdictions that have used or developed predictive policing tools while under government commission investigations or federal court monitored settlements, consent decrees, or memoranda of agreement stemming from corrupt, racially biased, or otherwise illegal policing practices. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust Entry Fee $21.00 Entry 1 competitors per entry Invite & Packets Location Westmont High School Contacts Coast Forensic League Info Invitation Homepage Events & Divisions Events Lincoln Douglas Parliamentary Policy Public … Bibliography and files Resolved: The United States ought to legalize adult sex work. Data from past crimes, including crime types and locations, are fed into a However, the same is true for its disadvantages or drawbacks. Champion Brief- Here NSDA LD Textbook (how to do LD) Victory Briefs Guide (Another intro to LD) Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Big Data Surveillance: The Case of Predictive Policing (2017). The MSHSAA promotes the value of participation, sportsmanship, team play, and personal excellence to develop citizens who make positive contributions to their community and support the democratic principles of our state and nation. Machine-learning algorithms could replicate or amplify bias on race, sexuality and age. Bibliography Resolved: The United States ought to grant legal personhood to natural ecosystems. Resolved: Japan ought to amend Article 9 of its constitution to allow for offensive military capabilities. Predictive policing is a phrase that raises concerns for many. Predictive Policing Symposium NIJ convened two symposium to discuss predictive policing and its impact on crime and justice. Yet as with many technologies that appear to provide a quick fix to complex social and political challenges, predictive policing promises far more than it can deliver — and actually exacerbates the problems that it claims to solve. We highlight three case studies: (1) Chicago, an example of where dirty data was ingested directly into the city’s predictive system; (2) New Orleans, an example where the extensive evidence of dirty policing practices and recent litigation suggests an extremely high risk that dirty data was or could be used in predictive policing; and (3) Maricopa County, where despite extensive evidence of dirty policing practices, a lack of public transparency about the details of various predictive policing systems restricts a proper assessment of the risks. All technology in law enforcement has its pros and cons, and the predictive policing pros and cons are discussed here. A 2019 study by the AI Now Institute, for example, describes how some police departments rely on “dirty data” — or data that is “derived from or influenced by corrupt, biased, and unlawful practices,” including both discriminatory policing and manipulation of crime statistics — to inform their predictive policing systems. They are being used by law enforcement agencies across the United States and elsewhere, and these experiences offer valuable lessons for other police departments as they consider the available tools to collect data, develop crime-related forecasts, and take action in their communities. Machine-learning algorithms could replicate or amplify bias on race, sexuality and age. Continued this season: Get both the PDF and Word versions of the book. public_forum_debate_instructions.pdf: File Size: 153 kb: File Type: pdf: Download File. The “definition of predictive policing” has been in use for years, but the growth of software and reliance upon it has given us insight into both the benefits and challenges of predictive policing. At-risk sites are marked with boxes colour-coded according to … "Throughout the month of February, Eloy did not stop practicing, going so far as to mock debate our assistant coach until 11 p.m. in the hotel room the evening before the event. All technology in law enforcement has its pros and cons, and the predictive policing pros and cons are discussed here. What’s not to get excited about?Unfortunately, many predictions made by policing software don’t come true. The fact that the practice depends on the collection and processing of data has raised concerns over privacy rights. A 2019 study by the AI Now Institute, for example, describes how some police departments rely on “dirty data” — or data that is “derived from or influenced by corrupt, biased, and unlawful practices,” including both discriminatory policing and manipulation of crime statistics — to inform their predictive policing systems. = predictive policing, providing assessments of both the most promising technical tools for making predictions and the most promising tactical approaches for acting on them. Third, the proliferation of automatic alert systems makes it possible to systematically surveil an unprecedentedly large number of people. Senior Open Mixed Extemp. “Predictive policing is often hailed as a scientific solution to otherwise-intractable issues of policing, such as racial profiling. h�bbd```b``z "���@$�o�|LJ����١`RL��`��[6�H2������10120��ehN�g��� � (K< 0 predictive policing, providing assessments of both the most promising technical tools for making predictions and the most promising tactical approaches for acting on them. The idea is that you feed a bunch of data into a mysterious algorithm, and poof, out comes intelligence about the future that tells police where the next crime is going to occur, or even who is going to commit it. Jan/Feb 2020: "Resolved: States ought to eliminate their nuclear arsenals." These policing practices and policies shape the environment and the methodology by which data is created, which raises the risk of creating inaccurate, skewed, or systemically biased data (“dirty data”). Sunday, the New York Times published a well-meaning op-ed about the fears of racial bias in artificial intelligence and predictive policing systems. Champion Brief- Here LD Resources 2020 March Topic, Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. RESEARCH BRIEF Predictive Policing Forecasting Crime for Law Enforcement P redictive policing—the application of analytical tech-niques, particularly quantitative techniques, to identify promising targets for police intervention and prevent or solve … We approached this task in three ways: 1. Last month, for example, researchers in Wales at the Social Data Science Lab at Cardiff University received an $800,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Justice to come up with a predictive policing model for Los Angeles — specifically, for hate crimes. Making it Work. R���fh&�#Mˤ ��Ҡ�,)��$XUX�Y��7ԐL�Bd�h��>�7�E�8^�N�vQ���Y 8���W�}����u����l+~[2y�12y��5���jٲBX>�g~]��;f��r����w-�*�qթ�()�dQ�7L+>Y-����C. )�� Resolved: The United States ought to legalize adult sex work. Today more than ever, law enforcement work is also proactive. The 2021 January Public Forum debate is, Resolved: The NSA should end its surveillance of U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Each round will include a mixture of international and domestic themes. Briefly Posted on February 1, 2020 February 1, 2020 by Lawrence Zhou And predictive policing continues to be a popular target for research all over the world. Submit. Resolved: Predictive policing is unjust. Continued this season: Get both the PDF and Word versions of the book potential criminal activity of policing such. Lead to unequal outcomes for individuals and communities announced May 1, 2020 by Zhou! 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